The natural reserved fund of Ukraine includes 7346 territories and objects, total area of which is 2,8 million hectares. It’s 4% of the territory of the state [1, p.528].
In spite of this, area of the natural reserved fund in Ukraine is insufficient and remains significantly lower than in most European countries, where the average percentage of wilderness protection reaches 15% of the territory.
It is explained by many reasons. Including the fact that сases of non-targeted using and seizure of the land of this fund, non-observance of the modes of its territories and objects have recently become more frequent.
Also of particular concern is the problem of the lack attention to the implementation of management functions in the sphere of protection of the natural and reserved fund, which have great importance for increasing of the effectiveness of legal protection of its territories and objects.
To address these and other problems, should be established a regime, in which natural resources will be conserved and rationally used, preventing them from depletion and pollution, and the proper quality of the environment will be ensured.
According to art.61 of the Law of Ukraine “On Environmental Protection” and art.7 of the Law of Ukraine “On Natural and Reserved Fund of Ukraine” the natural and reserved fund of Ukraine is constituted the land area and water space which natural complexes and objects have special nature protection, scientific, esthetic, recreational and other value and allocated for the purpose of preserving the natural variety of landscapes, the gene pool of the animal and flora, maintenance of overall ecological balance and ensuring baseline monitoring of the surrounding natural habitat, withdrawn from agricultural land using fully or partially and in accordance with the legislation declared an area or object of the natural reserved fund of Ukraine .
That is the Law of Ukraine “On Natural and Reserved Fund of Ukraine” provides for territories and objects of researched fund can be used for the needs of environmental monitoring.
Also this law provides the background environmental monitoring, which is carried out, generally only in the territory of biosphere reserves, that according to established order include in the World network of biosphere reserves under the UNESCO program "Man and Biosphere". It means that the results of the background monitoring are intended to determine global-background changes in the environment under increasing anthropogenic impact on the territories of the biosphere reserves, where it is forbidden to violate the natural course of ongoing natural processes.
Having analyzed the legislation on the Natural and Reserved Fund of Ukraine, we have found that one of the main means of maintaining the natural and reserved fund is the creation of a protected regime, depending on the degree of provision of which in Ukraine the following types of regimes are distinguished: reserved; absolute reserve; regulated reserve; protection regime; indirect using and protection and direct nature using.
Regardless of the particular species of the natural reserved regime, the general requirement, that arises from the principle of conservation, remains unchanged. It consists in the prohibition of any interference in the natural state of the environment, if this contradicts the goal, for achieving of which creates appropriate reserved object or complex.
In the legal literature was considered the question of a clear distinction between terms “reserved regime” and “legal regime” and of fixing them on the legislative level. According to the opinion of O.M. Covtun, “legal regime” of territories and objects of the natural reserved fund of Ukraine is order, which is established by rules of law, of their protection, using, entrance and management of them, which is based on the principle of conservation, for violation of which there is an increased legal responsibility. From the point of view of this scientist, “reserved regime” is order, which is established by rules of law, of saving and operation of territories and objects of the natural reserved fund in accordance with their earmarking purpose [3, p.4,5].
In our opinion, “reserved regime” differs from “legal regime” in that it can be defined as a set of rules of behavior that prohibit disrupting the natural course of natural processes, which are occurring on the territory of the objects of the natural reserved fund.
To summarize, we can say that nowadays, there are theoretical and practical questions in Ukraine.
To address these issues, it is proposed to make some changes and additions to the legislation of Ukraine, namely: to introduce and fix at the legislative level terms “reserved regime” and “legal regime” of the natural reserved fund of Ukraine.
1. Екологічне право України. Академічний курс: Підручник [Текст] – Друге видання / За заг.ред. Ю.С. Шемчушенка. К.: ТОВ “Видавництво “Юридична думка”, 2008. – 720 с.
2. Про природно-заповідний фонд України: Закон України від 16 червня 1992 року [Текст]// Відомості Верховної Ради України. – 1992. – №34. – ст. 502 .
3. Ковтун О.М. Правові аспекти охорони територій та об'єктів природно-заповідного фонду України: автореф. дис. на здоб. наук. ступ. канд. юрид. Наук: 12.00.06 [Текст] / О.М. Ковтун. – К., 2008. – 20 с.
Scientific leader: Tolkachenko O.V., Candidate of Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University