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PRIVATIZATION OF LAND
 
12.04.2017 09:04
Автор: Lazorenko A.V., the 4th year student specialty "civil and economical jurisdiction " Kryvy Rih Faculty National University "Odessa Law Academy"; Drobchak A.L., senior teaches of social, political and economic subjects` cathedra KF NU «OJA»
[Секція 7. Екологічне право. Земельне право. Аграрне право]

In a modern state, one of the pressing issues of land reform is the privatization of land. According to Ukrainian legislation, privatization of land at the expense of land that are in state or municipal property. Thus, the objects appear only land privatization land state and municipal property, which are provided for use by citizens of Ukraine.

Active deployment privatization, together with the imperfection of land legislation, contradictory reforms resulted in significant obstacles to the normal functioning of land relations in Ukraine. Land privatization process was launched back in 1992 by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine № 2200 "On the acceleration of land reform and land privatization." The procedure for registration of the State act of land ownership has undergone many changes, especially in recent years. Today, according to the current legislation of Ukraine has the right to a free one-time privatization of land in Ukraine (some can privatize land, but different purpose).

Regarding the definition of the land, the Constitution of Ukraine defines its main national wealth that is under special state protection. Land ownership is guaranteed. This right is acquired and realized by citizens, legal persons and state exclusively according to the law (Art. 14 of the Constitution of Ukraine). One way of acquisition of private land ownership is its privatization. According to the norms of the Land Code of Ukraine, citizens of Ukraine (Articles 25, 32 - 42) are eligible for the ownership of land for: keeping peasant (farmer) economy; ancillary services; construction and maintenance of residential homes and commercial buildings (homestead section); gardening; cottage and garage construction.

Thus it is possible to determine that the privatization of land - a transfer of individuals to private ownership of land from the state or municipal property.

Citizens of Ukraine may acquire ownership of land on the basis of:

a) the acquisition by contract of sale, gift, exchange, or other civil-law agreements;

b) the donation of lands of state and municipal property;

c) Privatization of land that were previously provided for their use;

d) inheritance;

e) selection in nature (on ground) due to them a land share (share).

In addition, the law provides and the donation of land to the ownership of citizens that can made in case of:

a) privatization of land, which are used by citizens;

b) obtaining land as a result of privatization of state and communal agricultural enterprises, institutions and organizations;

a) obtaining land plots of state and municipal property within the limits of free privatization.

The size of land transferred free citizen for subsidiary farming may be extended for an in situ (on site) land (share). Forbidden to transfer to private ownership of land in areas of exclusion and unconditional (obligatory) resettlement, contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster.

Land Code of Ukraine established a procedure for the privatization of land. A citizen who is interested in the privatization of land, which is in its use, applying the relevant competent authorities at the location of land. The decision of the executive authorities and local governments for land privatization taken within a month on the basis of technical materials and documents confirming size of the land.

In our opinion, the problem at this stage is that citizens in most cases prevented define yourself "desirable location of the land," because it is necessary to know whether the site is that clung to him like in stock. For the relevant information necessary to appeal to the bodies of land that often refuse to provide necessary information, arguing that there must "choose" land. Thus, a citizen has the right to access to public information, we believe that it should be able to learn about free land that could be privatized. Meanwhile, in the case of refusal to provide information citizens effectively deprived of effective remedies.

Regarding listed above, it can be concluded to ensure the rights of citizens to privatization of land, it is necessary to create a single public database (registry, cadastre) Ukrainian lands, which would contain full information on the availability of land suitable for privatization for each type of land use.

Unfortunately, such a database in Ukraine. Moreover, any official legal possibilities of obtaining such information generally available. Having access to such a database may choose a site and start its privatization process.




Literature:

1. Civil Code of Ukraine [electronic resource]. - Access: http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/435-15.

2. Land Code of Ukraine [electronic resource]. - Access: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2768-14.

3. Model Regulations of the consideration of issues related to the coordination of land documents, approved by Decree of the Cabinet on 23.12.2009 g. Number 1420, p. 13 [electronic resource]. - Access: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1420-2009-%D0%BF.



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