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PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS AS THE MAIN PRINCIPLE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
 
21.02.2007 20:15
Автор: Valentyn V. Galunko, candidate of legal sciences, Head of General juridical disciplines department Kherson Law Institute Kharkiv National University of Home Affairs
[Адміністративне право. Митне та податкове право]
In legal literature the problem of administrative law principles remains quite polemical. This question was to one or another extent traversed by such outstanding native administrativists as B.V. Averyanov, O.M. Bandurka, Yu.P. Bityak, A.S. Vasilyev, E.V. Dodin, S.V. Kivalov, V.K. Kolpakov, I.P. Golosnichenko, V.M. Plishkin and others. Though from one side, they have not accomplished the common conception of the problem, from another side ¬monographs, dedicated to the interpretation of the administrative law principles have not been published in Ukraine. Hereby concludes the actuality of future investigations concerning the proposed problem.
In Euroatlantic literature administration principles have not occurred to be paid much attention. According to V.M. Plishkin, that happened due to subjective reasons, as "the fathers of administration study" A. Fayol and F. Tailor admonished less the notion of "principle" must never be interpreted in scientific sense [1, p.102]. But the presented point of view is not the only one existing in Western administration study. Thus, for example, according to G. Kuntz and S.O'Donnel, it is the very occurrence of principles to 'approve the scientific character of administration [1, p. 103].
The principles theory, in general, and that of state administration, in particular, was being developed most tumultuously during the period when Ukrainian lands formed the consistent part of the Russian Empire. If to ignore the ideological colouring of those times' scientific works, some of the statements in
the pointed sphere, as mentioned bу them, in our point of view mау bе considered to bе actual under modem conditions as well.
S.S. Alekseev stated, that the very essence of law is unfolded via principles, i.e. they directly introduce the nature of law, its basis, general patterns of social life, tendencies and demands [2, р. 98]. Administrative scientists, in their turn, understood under the principles of administrative law the main fundamentals (ideas complex), characterizing its nature, strengthening the patterns of its development and determining the mechanism of administrative law regulation of administerial relations [3, р.34]. А.Р.Коnееу emphasized several administrative law principles of social relations regulation, i.e. its scientific character (objectivity), unity of equal rights and equal responsibilities, legality [3, р.35]. У.А.Yusupov has successfully, in our opinion, divided them into general ones and those of administrative law institutes. Не stated that institutes' principles reflect objective laws of separate legal relationships' development directly influenced bу them. At the same time they accumulate general principles of administrative law [3, р. 35,43]".
Most native scientists, who work in the sphere of administrative law, tend to similar interpretation. Nearly аll of them consider principles to bе the necessary condition of theoretical provisions for оnе or another activity bу subjects of power authorities definition.
As for the problem of definitions and their classification, here native and foreign scientists do not keep the same point of view.
Уu.Р. Bityak interprets the principle as the outlet, objectively determined fundamental basis, relevantly to which the system as well as the essence of the administrative law are formed and function [4, р. 29]. According to Y.K.Kolpakov the principles of state administration are its positive patterns, as cognized bу science and practice, fixed in legal norms or generalization of the legal rules, being in force. Positive principles are treated as those соrrеsроnding to human demands [5, р. 18]. О.М. Bandurka states that the principle of certain activity is as а rule understood as its outlet, primary provisions, governing resolutions determining the
most important rules, according to which the activity тау bе organized and realized [6, р. 203].
In our opinion, the matter of the above mentioned definitions does not differ greatly. Each of them just reveals in more detail the general interpretation of the administrative law principles, belonging to опе or another sphere.
Ву virtue of the presented views Ьу the outstanding scientists as well as our own treatment of the subject and method of administrative law, we occur able to formulate the administrative law principles. W е tend to interpret them as the main activity lines belonging to the administrative power subjects and aimed at provision of humanhtnd citizen rights and freedoms protection, including those against willfulness of state authority institutions.
Concluding of the essence of the concrete administrative law principles, in our point of view, is to bе started with research of administrative law reform's doctrine provisions. In native administrative jurisprudence most precisely they were studied Ьу У.В. Averyanov, who investigated them in the sphere of administrative law principles' formation.
The main thesis to draw his attention was that modern native administrative law still fundamentally differs from that of European countries due to its "spirit", its ideology. According to his point of view in European countries it is orientated to guaranteeing and effective protection of human rights and freedoms. In our country it is orientated to satisfaction of state's and state administration's needs (in fact, of those, belonging to state apparatus).
То counterbalance the aforesaid "anthropocentric" ideology is proposed to form the basis for administrative law doctrine. According to the mentioned ideology а state must “bе in service” for the interests of its citizens, i.e. act "for the welfare of human being" bу means of overall provision of the priority of his rights, freedoms and interests in the sphere of public administration activity (executive power and local government institutions). In accordance with such mediations he proposes to overinterpret the principles of the administrative law study in direction
of "anthropocentric" ideology, while the first of the administrative law principles must bе the principle of law supremacy [8, р.57].
When considering constitutional statements about "Confirmation and provision of human rights and freedoms" [9] he reads the following two aspects in the principle of law supremacy. The first is the оnе concerning "approval" of human rights, which includes the range of problems, connected with the exact fact of provision of the subjects with rights, with the list and essence of these rights, with their independent legalization (normalization). Another aspect is the "provision" of rights, which reflects аll of the measures and permits the аbоvе mentioned subjects to realize the provided rights, i.e., in fact, to use the formally provided opportunities aiming at satisfaction of own demands and interests. Accordingly, V.B. Averyanov comes to the conclusion that supremacy of law causes, first of аll, the accent over the aspect of human rights' "provision" [8, р. 60]. The author supports, in general, the described direction of administrative law principles' development.
Tending towards objectivity, we should propose to study other administrativists' points of view, concerning administrative law principles' formation and classification.
Leading Russian administrativist L.L. Ророу considers the principle of personal rights and interests priority to bе the most important principle of administrative law. In his opinion, the mentioned principle is especially significant for administrative law regulation, because it is the very process of executive power realization, when human and citizen rights and freedoms bесоmе real and guaranteed, when their defense is compulsory. The formation of administrative status of a person is realized via the norms of administrative law [10, р. 50, 51]. Besides, there exist other neither polar, nor similar to the mentioned points of view concerning the nature and classification of the administrative law principles [11, р. 18, 19; 12, р. 15].
Principles as mentioned аbоvе and presented bу outstanding administrative law scientists, in our point of view, have an objective base. Besides, they, as а rule,
do not contradict but supplement one another. At the same time, they possess the following conceptual contradiction. One of them form the principles of state administration, others form those of administrative law. Under the conditions of modem life we experience the necessity to solve the presented problem.
In our point of view, it is precisely У.В. Averyanov to Ье right. Не considers the category of "administration" under he conditions of modem life mау not bе used in full measure, as far as it possesses the definite sense and exhausts the whole capacity of activities, realized bу public power institutions. In his opinion, administration mау only bе defined as а part of public power activities. W е tend to support such interpretation of administrative law and state administration division in correlation of а part to the whole.
Relatively, several principles of state administration mау as well bе used for administrative law as а whole. However, simple mechanical borrowing is here inappropriate.
In our point of view, one of the head administrative law principles peculiar
to а modem democratic state, where the civil society is being built, must bе the priпciple оf huтaп rights aпd freedoтs protectioп.
Wе propose to make an attempt to prove the mentioned hypothesis via the provisions of the law philosophy. The mentioned philosophy in its turn upholds the intrinsic human rights and those bу Constitution of Ukraine, whose provisions are called for specifying, interpretation and detailed elaboration of administrative law.
According to law philosophy thesis, the principle of human rights and freedoms protection might bе considered with accord to two main types of law interpretation, i.e. the philosophy of intrinsic rights and that of positivism.
Intrinsic rights appear from social and human nature, human mind, general moral principles. That is the reason why we consider it reasonable and just. Its main ideas are connected with intrinsic human rights, such as freedom, equality, safety, counteraction against violence etc. The conception of juridical sense of justice establishes that the rights are objective in respect to law due to their natural character. Law is interpreted as artificial, subjective and temporary phenomenon.
Rights are primary and defining in respect of law, which is considered to bе secondary, or derived from rights. Aiming at law to bесоmе а juridical phenomenon, it must correspond to intrinsic rights and coordinate with it [13, р. 113]. According to Р. Novgorodtsev, juridical sense of justice has inherent the opportunity to designate the moral estimation of positive law which, in its turn, is based оn intrinsic rights [14, р. 5].
ln general, intrinsic rights mау bе defined as universal, objective phenomenon, which is primary from law and state and embodies objective human values and demands, as well as acts as the absolute criterion of аll human attitudes' juridicity.
Оn this basis we consider that in а democratic legal state, organization of human rights and freedoms protection is the main global course of activity bу power authorization subjects as public power representatives. Consequently, according to intrinsic rights thesis, provisioп of hитaп rights aпd freedoтs is the main principle of administrative law.
Positivism, in its turn, acting as sense of justice type presents the possibility to highlight the administrative law key points quite differently.
An outstanding German scientist R. Iyering stated that “ the aim of law is piece, while its means is fight. Until law is assaulted by non-law (though this process will last as long as the world exists), it will not be deprived of battle necessity. Life of law is а struggle: national, that of state power, positional, personal [15, р.15]”. Bу this, he occurred to formulate the law theory of person's conscious effort and interests contest as а factor of law generating, but state power as the formal source of law [16, р. 229]. Оn the basis of R. Iyering's law viewpoints and positive philosophy, established bу О. Kont, appears positive law doctrine. Neither dogma nor highest reason but concrete rules are defined to Ье the unique object of study [16, р. 229]. Positivism successfully brings to jurisprudence the notion of "subjective law" as derived from objective law which is prescribed bу the state. The state delegates subjective rights and prescripts juridical duties in obedience to the norms of law. Thereby the positivists equate law and rights.
Such rationalistic, simple and effective, from the point of view of the state, doctrine quickly won first German jurisprudence, later, in IX с., that of аll other European countries, including Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires, which owned Ukrainian lands.
Implementation to both theory and practice of the mentioned sense of justice presented the opportunity to indicate the principles of stable law order establishment, to study in detail law norm structure and legal responsibility grounds, as well as to classify legal norms and normative acts and types of interpretation [13, р. 115].
Positivism was аn indispensable element of the Soviet Law and manу of its theoretical provisions continue their existence in the native administrative law theory and practice. However, let us indicate а quite significant inherent defect it possesses. According to the legal rule, positivism cannot behold а human, but vice versa аn individuum appears to bе а "cog" for the state as for legal rules execution.
That is the reason for us to consider the idea of resorting under modem conditions the principle of administrative law, that were developed uроn the theory of positivism, not reasonable from scientific point of view.
At the same time, positivism remains to bе аll extremely important theory, which enables the administrative law to elaborate and to improve its imperative nature. It must bе established under modem conditions, basing оn the intrinsic rights, and aimed foremost to protection of human rights and freedoms.
According to such аll approach we consider it reasonable to base the principles of administrative law оn philosophy of intrinsic rights. Most significant оnе is to bе the principle of human rights and freedoms protection. Regardless of positivistic sense of justice as the base, improvement and extension of administrative law with new methods is quite advisable.
At the beginning of ХХ с. Р.Novgorodtsev under the condition of positive rights strangle attempted to subordinate it with intrinsic rights. At the beginning of ХХI с. Limits are to bе reasonable, as some scientists try to "overcome completely the positivistic-legistic sense of justice [17, р. 50]". We соmе to the conclusion that positive law is neither good nor bad, the essence lays in the very direction of its application. If to use it for the execution of the main administrative law principle, i.e. that of human rights and freedoms protection, it mау not merely occur to bе useful, but also, in our opinion, is indispensable in the sphere of administrative law. То say it in other words, we propose to subordinate the positive law to the principles of intrinsic law principles as оnе of the most effective means of its improvement.
In this case the imperative nature of administrative law remains unchanged, while its purpose alters. Earlier it served the state and under the conditions of legal social state its main purpose is human rights and freedoms protection.
The whole аbоvе mentioned presents аn opportunity to formulate the main features, which prove protection of human rights and freedoms as оnе of the administrative law principles.
1. Intrinsic rights originate from social and human nature, human mind, general morality of the mankind. It is wise and just. Its initial purposes include the human intrinsic rights (freedom, equality, safety etc.) protection. Besides, it provides the human with the right of violence resistance.
2. Anу regulatory-legal act is only then considered to bе legal, when it соrrеsроnds to intrinsic rights.
3. Main global direction of power authority subjects' activity (as public power representatives) according to intrinsic sense of justice is presented bу human rights and freedoms protection.
4. Positivistic sense of justice is not appropriate to bе used during administrative law principles' formation, whereas this theory due to its form does not behold а essence. А person here appears to bе а "cog", aimed at establishment and realization of legal nоrm.
Consequently, we consider it appropriate 1) to elicit the principles power authorization subjects' activity оn the basis of intrinsic law philosophy; 2) to use the positive sense of justice as the means of effective methods of administrative law principles elaboration.
Therefore, in our opinion the thesis of the principle of human rights and freedoms being the most important опе in administrative law is quite indisputable.
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