SOME QUERIES ON UKRAINIAN-SWEDISH LEGAL RELATIONS BACKGROUND
Автор: Shevchenko Anastasiya, senior specialist International Relations Department Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; postgraduate student Institute of World Economy and International Relations National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Ukraine and Sweden have long combined close historical ties being cemented by constructive political dialogue now. Our nations together have been creating the history for the last three centuries. It just began when the first sprouts of Ukrainian struggle for freedom started. They are still reserved now, in the time of vigorous formation of European orientation of Ukraine. The historical fact that wonderful relationship between our two nations was developing the Viking era when in fact there were no state formations in Kievan Rus nor in Scandinavia to the time when the Ukraine gained independence. History of Ukrainian-Swedish relations keep in memory the period sanctified by the Ukrainian-Swedish marriage between Mstislav Harold Vladimir Monomakh’s son and Christina, King Stenkil is dautgher. Prince Yaroslav the Wise’s a wife Inherherda was the successor of King of Sweden Olof Shytkonunh . The medieval preserved the facts concerning deepening friendly Ukrainian-Swedish relations in the field of fundamental foreign policy cooperation . «Swedish horizon» «become the priority foreign policy strategy of Ukrainian Cossack state of Khmelnytsky . Some researchers regard the Ukrainian-Swedish relations during this period (1655-1657 biennium) «trump card» in the «frame of security and consolidation of state independence of Ukraine in terms of existing historical realities . Ukrainian hetmans and political figures during the Cossack state of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Ivan Vyhovsky, Ivan Mazepa maintained consistency. They followed the practice of bilateral relations .
With regard to the history of Ukrainian-Swedish relations in the twentieth century, it should be recalled that the diplomatic representation of the Ukrainian National Republic functions implemented consular representation in Sweden in 1918-1920. However, during most of the last century, political realities made up so that Ukraine and Sweden were kept separated. Nevertheless according to the conviction of Mr. G. Persson, Prime Minister of Sweden, there are numerous factors that firmly unites . On the recommendation of the International Commission and independent experts one of the unifying factors could be the program of actions for the first year after the newly elected President of Ukraine takes office. The Commission activity has been financed including the assistance of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden . However, most Western Europeans, especially Swedes, sincerely hope that Ukraine will not lose its West oriented striving .
The present day relationship between the Ukraine and Sweden is based on international agreements and divided into interstate, intergovernmental and interdepartmental groups. Regarding international agreements one should separately note the Declaration on Mutual Claims between the USSR and the Kingdom of Sweden of 15 March 1924. It is still valid in accordance with the Protocol between the Governments of Ukraine and the Kingdom of Sweden on contractual basis of bilateral Ukrainian-Swedish of 23 March 1999. It should be noted that the signed in the former Soviet Union notes and agreements covered various sectors and industries. Being concluded over the last century they have not lost their relevance within the frame of bilateral Ukrainian-Swedish relations nowadays. This, above all is the exchange of notes on the Abolition of Certain consular Duties of February 27, 1961 and the Agreement on Mutual Protection of Copyright of 15 April 1986. Sweden, first among the Nordic countries recognized independence of Ukraine on December 19, 1991 .
The first diplomatic act between our countries was the Intergovernmental Agreement between Ukraine and the Kingdom of Sweden on establishing diplomatic relations on January 13, 1992.One should notice a number of intergovernmental documents signed by the Governments of Ukraine and the Kingdom of Sweden. First of all the Agreement between Ukraine and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden on Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments of March 1, 1997. Over the following four years 6 agreements covering various areas of industry and the executive branch were signed. These, above all, are Agreement between the governments of two countries of June 18, 1999 and Agreement on struggle against Crime of June 21, 1999. More over two agreements in the nuclear field were signed. These are Agreement between the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents and Information Exchange on Nuclear Installations of July 21, 1999. The Agreement between the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden on Cooperation in Nuclear Security of April 20, 2000. Between Ukraine and Sweden there are other Agreements. Agreement on Flights (March 27, 2001) and Agreement on General Terms of Technical and Financial Cooperation (August 29, 2007). One should refer to intergovernmental documents Convention between the Governments of our Countries on Avoiding Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income and Property (June 4, 1996). Central Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine keep the documents signed in the form of a protocol between the governments of Ukraine and Sweden on the contractual basis of bilateral Ukrainian-Swedish relations of March 23, 1999 and also the Protocol between the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden and the Government of Ukraine on Cooperation in Military Affairs of December 4, 2001. To the effective intergovernmental official documents between Ukraine and Sweden one must refer Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the field of Energy and Energy Saving between the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden of November 21, 2008.
Concerning interdepartmental documents signed between Sweden and Ukraine it should be emphasized that they contain Agreements and Protocols on cooperation a long side a number of Memorandums. The Letter of Intent in the field of cooperation between the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine and Ministry of Finance of Sweden, of April 18, 2007 should be put separately. In the early 90-is last century the Agreement between the main archival management at the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and National Archives of Sweden was signed, on April 13, 1992, as well as between the State Committee of Ukraine on Nuclear and Radiation Security and the Swedish Nuclear Energy Inspectoratum on non-proliferation activities connected with nuclear weapons of September 7, 1993. Particular attention should be drawn to the Agreement between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine which was signed during the official visit of Borys Paton President of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine to Sweden on October 24, 1994. To resume contacts between Academies of Sciences of our countries the relevant documents are currently being worked out by specialists of international relations department of the Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Ministry of Foreign Relations of Ukraine archives keep safe the concluded Protocols on Cooperation between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and the National Police Department of the Kingdom of Sweden of May 10, 2000, on Cooperation between National Police Administration of the Kingdom of Sweden and Derzhkomkordon of Ukraine of May 7, 2001. This list includes Documents of Intent relevant to further developing of cooperation between the Accounting Chamber of Ukraine and National Audit Office of Sweden, of March 6, 2008. It is very important to refer to bilateral documents a number of Memoranda signed between the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Swedish Rescue Services Agency on September 8, 2004 and on Cooperation between the National Agency of Ukraine for Efficient Use of Energy and the State Agency for Energy of Sweden of February 18, 2008. It is worth mentioning the following documents Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Housing and Municipal Economy of Ukraine and North Environmental Finance Corporation of September 5, 2008 and Memorandum on Cooperation in Environmental Protection between the Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine and the Swedish Agency for Environmental Protection of February 21, 2008. Interagency Cooperation Program in Education and Science between the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and the Swedish Institute within 2001-2003 biennium of August 8, 2001 is among official documents.
The Ukrainian-Swedish relations have a long mutually history that based on beneficial background and legal framework that encouraged the Ukrainian implementation to the European Union and Euro-Atlantic community.
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