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Актуальні дослідження правової та історичної науки (випуск 59)

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LAWMAKING QUALITIES OF PAVLO SKOROPADKY DURING THE HETMANATE
 
10.12.2020 22:23
Автор: Riabokon Yulia Volodymyrivna, student, National Aviation University, Kyiv
[Секція 7. Історія держави і права. Історія політичних і правових вчень]

The stay of Pavlo Skoropadsky at the head of the Hetman of the Ukrainian State proved that Ukraine received a historical figure who in the extremely difficult circumstances managed to bring the ship of Ukrainian statehood out of the chaos and anarchy, fruitless social experiments, ignoring the national needs of society and directing the law in the right direction.

After been proclaimed as a hetman General P. Skoropadsky, on April 29, 1918, issued two basic documents - "Letter to the entire Ukrainian people" and "Laws on the Provisional Government of Ukraine." With these letters, he declared himself hetman and explained the main motives for such actions - the threat of a new catastrophe and the categorical demands of the working masses to build a state that would provide the population with "peace, law and creative work." The Central Rada and land committees were dissolved, as were UPR ministers and their deputies. The hetman was to govern the state through the Council of Ministers appointed by him.

The second document - "Laws on the Provisional State System of Ukraine" was a set of seven acts: "On the Hetmanate", "On the Council of Ministers and Ministers", "On Faith", "On the rights and responsibilities of Ukrainian Cossacks and Citizens", " On Laws”, “On the General Court”, “On the Financial Council” [1, p. 19]. "Laws on the Provisional State System of Ukraine" defined the functions of the hetman and his state apparatus, proclaimed the basic responsibilities and rights of citizens, determined the status of the church. They consisted of 44 articles grouped into 7 sections [2].

During the reign of P. Skoropadsky, 17 laws, 14 resolutions, two statutes and one instruction were prepared and approved - a total of 34 documents related to the development of education, science and culture. This set of official documents testifies to the great work of the government in the direction of reforming and creating new higher, secondary and primary educational institutions of Ukraine. The foundations of the activities of higher Ukrainian scientific institutions were laid, research institutes were still operating, libraries were established, and measures were taken to protect monuments of history, culture and art.

The achievements of the Hetman's government in building of a network of foreign missions are significant. As scientists, in particular D. Yanevsky, emphasizes, the pace of development is impressive even today. During the whole period of its existence, the Ukrainian state of P. Skoropadsky had 11 diplomatic and about 50 consular missions in 20 countries, and on its territory - 12 diplomatic and 42 consular missions from 24 states.

A special place belongs to the diplomatic relations of the Hetman's government with the government of Russia, which was obliged to conclude peace with Ukraine under the Brest Treaty. The talks discussed the cessation of hostilities, as well as finance, transport, postal services, exchange of prisoners, economic and cultural relations. Here the government of P. Skoropadsky had some successes - a truce was concluded, Ukrainian consulates general in Moscow and Petrograd were established, consulates in other large cities of Russia [3, p. 11-12].

During Skoropadsky's ruling a number of law-making processes took place, especially the creation of a judicial system according to which world justice was restored, the process of forming a civil service in Ukraine began, namely: the creation of power institutions necessary for the full functioning of both the head of state and the state mechanism. in general. The development of state financial institutions, the establishment of money circulation, the improvement of the monetary system, the restoration of private property, which contributed to the economic rise, the development of the Armed Forces, according to which a plan was developed to organize an army of more than 300,000 men; training centers for the army were established and a network of diplomatic missions was established.

Summarizing the above, the policy of Pavel Skoropadsky has improved both the political and economic life of citizens. The most important achievements of the Hetman's government were successes in policy in the fields of education, science, culture, which indicates a clear articulation in the activities of P. Skoropadsky during the Hetmanate in 1918 and where his state-building activities were most significant. However, this work took place in the difficult conditions of the world war and the revolution in Ukraine, so not all measures of the hetman's government in the humanitarian sphere were implemented. The main thing he managed to do was to preserve Ukrainian statehood. 

Hetman's achievements are significant for the history of Ukraine and made a significant contribution to the process of forming Ukraine as an independent, sovereign state. Moreover, the historical experience of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky is relevant today, as well as his ideas and implementation of legal doctrines in practice can be adopted by current lawmakers.

References:

1. Pyrih R.Y. Hetmanate of Pavlo Skoropadsky: features of legislation. 2010. Central State Archives of Ukraine (Central State Archive of Higher Authorities and Administration of Ukraine). P. 76-85.

2. Laws on the temporary state system of Ukraine. State formations (1917-1920); Historical document, Law of April 29, 1918. URL: https: //zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/n0004300-18#Text (access date: 07.12.2020)

3. Voronko L.O. Ukrainian state formation in the days of the Hetmanate of 1918: the role and significance of P. Skoropadsky's activity. Public administration: theory and practice. 2016. P. 3–20.

________________

Scientific adviser: Vodolaskova Kateryna Yuriyivna, Candidate of Law, Associate Professor, National Aviation University



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